Wednesday, July 8, 2020

Spontaneous Bilateral Adrenal Hemorrhage - Free Essay Example

Background Adrenal hemorrhage is a rare condition that results in adrenal shock, death, or adrenal crisis unless treated on time (Dahiya et al. 2). Unfortunately, the symptoms of the disease are not easy to identify because they are unclear. In fact, most patients discover that they are suffering from this disease when being scanned for other cases. Since it does not have any clinical manifestations, it is difficult to point out the causes or effectively treat it (Barucha et al. 6). In adults, the disease is caused by sepsis from an organism or meningococcemia. In addition, being under extreme stress could lead to insufficient production of adrenaline which may cause the disease. Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. However, there are features which predispose the adrenal medulla to thrombosis (Sharma 12). It is important to note that thrombosis has been linked to this disease. Regarding the features, the rich supply of blood from the artery to the delicate subscapular arteries with very few venules is the major contributor (Girgis et al. 44). The adrenal gland has arich supply of blood but has poor drainage because it depends on one vein. In the same manner, stressful conditions also lead to the disease as mentioned earlier. In the adrenal glands, there is a hormone called adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) whose quantity increases when an individual is stressed (Rosenberger et al. 31). ACTH has the effect of making arterial blood flow into the arteries much higher than the vein can drain. Coupled with thrombosis, the likelihood of this disease occurring are much higher. The occurrence of the disease is attributed to a disease called Waterhouse –Friedrich en syndrome (WFS). This disease leads to the failure of the adrenal glands due to excessive bleeding into the adrenal glands (Hammond et al. 2,476). The pathogen responsible for this disease is called meningococcus. A bacterial infection leads to meningococcemia which causes the severe bleeding. Even though WFS is classically named as the main cause, bilateral hemorrhage can occur due to pregnancy, burns, and traumatic events (Hammond et al. 2,477). Other adrenal diseases or complications are also associated with the disease. For instance, thrombocytopenia or surgery. Epidemiology Frequency The occurrence of this disease is very rare. As a matter of fact, it was assumed that less than 1% of the total population had the disease several decades ago. In America, less between 0.3 and 1.8 % of the population suffers from the disease (Sharma 14). Even so, for people who die of shock, 15% of them are believed to have suffered from this disease. Mortality Acute adrenal insufficiency may occur in the presence of the disease. Surprisingly, patients who suffer from adrenal hemorrhage do so because of underlying diseases related to the adrenal glands (Sacerdote 55). That is to say, even when treatment is successful, there is still the possibility of the patient dying. In general, this disease accounts for 15% of the total mortality of people suffering from adrenal problems. Despite that, it is possible for the severity to increase depending on the underlying adrenal disease (Bharucha 13). To illustrate, patients suffering from WFS have higher mortality rates than those who have less threatening diseases. To be precise, these patients have a 50-60% mortality rate. Chronic adrenal insufficiency occurs in people who survive from this disease. For their recovery, they require long-term glucocorticoid replacement. Androgen replacement is also available as an alternative form of treatment (Dahiya 7). Despite the treatment options, there are very rare cases of patients recovering completely. Nevertheless, early treatment and detection make all the difference. Gender factors According to reports, males have a higher chance of getting the bilateral hemorrhage than females. The ratio of man to woman is 2:1 (Dahiya 8). That means that men are twice as likely to get this disease as women. Age Although age is not a prime factor, it has been reported that people affected by this disease are in their thirties at the very least (Rosenberger 35). Furthermore, the people in their 40s have higher chances of getting this disease. Although traumatic experiences could lead to the disease, non-traumatic causes are also responsible for it. By the age, 80% the likelihood of getting this disease is much higher. WFS is a pediatric disease that increases one’s chance of getting the disease. Signs and symptoms As mentioned earlier, the disease does not have any distinctive signs and symptoms to enhance treatment. Even so, there are several characteristics that have been identified in the patients. They include: Primary symptoms The primary symptoms of this disease are chest pain or in other cases back pain, and pain in the abdomen. Fever may occur although it is a rare feature (Hammond 2,485). In the case of theabdomen, acute abdominal rigidity and rebound tenderness were reported in 15%-20% of the cases. Hypotension may also occur though the chances are 15%. In Severe but rare cases, anemia may occur. As noted, these symptoms are not isolated in occurrence. In light of that, pinpointing the actual disease becomes problematic (Dahiya 9). In the case of pregnant women, it is even worse because of similar symptoms arising from other factors. As aforementioned, chances of survival of this disease are very low. Diagnosis CT scans The standard diagnostic measure includes the use of computed tomography (CT) scans with or without contrast. The CT scan is important because, through it, the adrenaline gland can clearly be seen and so can any swellings in it (Hammond et al. 2,499). A CT scan also helps differentiate the different causes of the hemorrhage. Through this clarity, the doctor can tell the different causes of the bleeding. The differentiation is obtained through enhancing the images and precontrast scans (Girgis 50). CT scans are more a more popular approach to diagnosing this disease. However, the rim enhancement makes it difficult to tell the precise cause of the hemorrhage. MRI scans Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans are believed to be more accurate than CT scans. MRI scans with contrast enhanced with subtraction imaging give more accurate results (Sacerdote 57). In MRI scans, methemoglobin is used to detect and enhance areas of high signal on unenhanced T- weighted sequences. This aspect presents a problem because it makes it difficult to differentiate. To counter this problem, the subtraction of any particles in the blood is done. What is left is a hematoma which is identified (Sacerdote 59). MRI is the best alternative because it differentiates the acute and sub-acute hemorrhages. The two methods of diagnosis are commonly used in hospitals because they point out any unusual occurrence within the adrenaline glands (Bharucha 24). Diagnosis is important because it is the first step toward a treatment plan that could reduce chances of death. Treatment The treatment of this disease includes therapy sessions to replace the functioning of the adrenal glands and reduce any excessive fluids. In nontraumatic cases, surgery is not required. On the other hand, traumatic causes require surgery (Sharma 35). Treatment in children is done with parental guidance. Hydrocortisone is administered to children. Other drugs include Mineralocorticoids though this may not be effective in the case of bilateral hemorrhage in the long run. Radiology may also come in handy. Diet For individuals suffering from this disease, a lot of water and salt intake is important. For those critically ill, they are kept on a status called nothing by mouth (NPO) (Bharucha et al. 33). The NPO status is given depending on the severity of symptoms such as vomiting. Bed rest is required for those people suffering from this disease. Patient counseling and education Patient counseling and education are given to enable the patients to help them understand their condition better. For clarification, the patients visit several specialists who take part in their treatment process (Sacerdote 65). They include an endocrinologist who educates them more about the role that hormones play in the disease and how to manage it. Another consultant is a urologist or at times a surgeon who may or may not perform surgery on the patient. A cardiologist may also come in handy. Other specialists may such as infectious disease specialists are included in helping the patient manage the disease. Conclusion To conclude, it is evident that the disease is not easy to identify because some of the symptoms resemble those of other diseases. This disease is relatively rare and so not so much literature is available. This can be seen in the case of its pathology. Through CT and MRI scans, it is possible to identify the hemorrhage in the adrenal glands. While treatment is effective, there is still a high level of mortality rates experienced. Even so, it is important for the age groups susceptible to this disease to be checked should any of the symptoms suffice.

Thursday, July 2, 2020

Anorexia The Role of Media Essay - 550 Words

Anorexia: The Role of Media (Essay Sample) Content: Anorexia: The Role of MediaNameInstitution Anorexia is a psychological disorder that is mainly associated with the disturbing physical consequences. It is a peculiar reaction that range from exterior and internal conflicts such as anxiety and sadness. Research depicts that Anorexia is a genetic tendency majorly caused by environmental factors. Despite the malady being grouped as nutritional disorder, media has massively contributed in spreading the increase of the disease within the society. Moreover, the influence of the media and spread of anorexia cannot be disputed since the media normally display to the public fundamental images and information thus reinforcing the idea that happiness of individuals solely depend on their sizes. Within the modern universe, it is cumbersome to read magazine and newspaper or turn on the television and listen to the radio without seeing the information that fatness is detrimental (Calvert Wilson, 2011). The most disturbing issue i s that such information is also seen by the kids thus causing kids to be obsessed with their weight. Moreover, the messages have made more of the adolescents not to properly eat in the name of checking their underlying weight. Most of the examples mainly illustrate the medias obsession with the thinness in regard to the role within the anorexia. Numerous television individuals are not overweight. Moreover, hiring such individuals give the society the perception that the beauty is mainly associated with the thinness (Ogden, 2011). Thus, media requires taking massive responsibility for maintaining the prevailing dysfunction. This subsequently serves as a fundamental strategy aid in relatively lowering underlying cases anorexia within the society. Western media have massively contributed in spreading of anorexia from the interpretation of perfect body kinds via numerous programs. Moreover, social media play a responsibility in fueling and triggering the malady (Ogden, 2011). Media h ave relatively greater power in curbing the disorder despite being blamed for the escalated spread of the malady. For instance, there exist pro-anorexic websites that have been developed in order to help the provision pieces of advice and corresponding guidelines on matters of the unhealthy weight administration (Howard-Taylor, 2009). This mainly encompasses Pinterest which is a social site that have ceased from utilizing inspiration words to the users to be skinny. The site has embraced creativity of cautioning users on the feeding disorders, which is a mental disorder and ought to be handled in order to avoid austere health circumstance (Calvert Wilson, 2011). Fear is normally install in individuals when magazines glamorize thin bodies and putting diet divert on social site on the ladies pages thus causing to be fat. Moreover, when media feature models having thin bodies they ought to remind the underlying public that such individuals mold their bodies mainly with the assistanc e of nutritionists, individual trainers and corresponding plastic surgeons. In conclusion, the media can perform great responsibility in regard to the development, preservation, stoppage and cure of the anorexia. This can solely happen in case they are careful of the underlying images they show to the public. They ought to avoid showing images and conveying information that mainly focuses on the worth of thinness since such information possess negative effects on the numerous audiences (Van Kinnally, 2012). Moreover, they also distress the underlying passionate welfare of individuals thus causing bad eating patterns amongst women who mainly believe within the western cultures. Despite the underlying media contributing massively to the maintenance and growth of the anorexia, they can also aid in the treatment and prevention of the disorder. This can mainly be executed via media activism, backing and literacy. With the drastic predominance of the body displeasure within the communi ty, it would be more sensible for the media to majorly advocate for the positive body construction information in order to aid in pugnacious the...

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Why Natural Law Theory Is an Inadequate Criticism of...

Albert Einstein one said, Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen.(Quotations,162) There is some truth to what he said in relation to Natural Law Theory. It would seem that Natural Law is based at least in part on common sense. This essay will attempt to discredit the Theory of Natural Law on these grounds, as well as proving that it is inapplicable when judging the ethical value of homosexuality, and discrediting homosexuality as a perversion. Act utilitarianism depicts the argument more clearly, because there are certain semantic inconsistencies with Kantian ethical Theory that will be discussed further on. Let us first consider the premise that homosexuality is contrary to Natural Law, because the†¦show more content†¦Viagra) or building alliances are against Natural Law Theory. We must also question whether irrational species are ever capable of doing that which is unnatural, as they are guided by instinct rather than coherent thought. If we expand this into the human sphere, it is then clear that only humans are capable of unnatural activity. Given our ability to choose and our similarity to these species, humanity can only have one of the following two potential characteristics: humans are either naturally inclined to homosexuality, or they are unnatural. Because humans are rational (and because of which, perhaps unnatural) and can therefore choose among alternatives, we may say that humanity is naturally inclined towards homosexuality. However, ethics is concerned with right and wrong, not with what is. Act utilitarianism can clearly explain homosexuality as a general practice. Surely heterosexuals enjoy being heterosexuals. There is no reason for a woman to say, I love men, but I wish I loved women, for that would mean that she is either considering women in the light of an intimate relationship and/or sex (and is perhaps considering bisexuality), or she is recalling characteristics that have nothing to do with either (i.e. women are more organized) and will hence have nothing to do with her sexual orientation. It is likewise for homosexuals, with one exception. TheShow MoreRelatedCrime, Deviance, Social Order And Social Control3729 Words   |  15 PagesDefinitions of: Crime, Deviance, Social order and Social control Crime is defined by the Oxford dictionary as ‘an action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law.’ (Dictionary, 2015) Whereas deviance is failing to conform to the expectations held by society without necessarily breaking any laws. Criminal behaviour differs to deviant behaviour as a person can be deviant without committing a crime and vice versa, a person can be criminal without being deviant. For example, speedingRead MoreCalculus Oaper13589 Words   |  55 PagesAdrienne Rich    Adrienne Rich s essay constitutes a powerful challenge to some of our least examined sexual assumptions. Rich turns all the familiar arguments on their heads: If the first erotic bond is to the mother, she asks, could not the natural sexual orientation of both men and women be toward women? Rich s radical questioning has been a major intellectual force in the general feminist reorientation to sexual matters in recent years, and her conception of a lesbian continuum sparkedRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pagesstream might not have Giardia. Ill take the first drink. Juanita winces. No, don’t do that, she says. Lets just pack up and go home. When you ask her why, she explains that a friend of hers got Giardia and had a bad experience with it. She doesnt want to risk having the same experience. When you hear the details, you understand why. The symptoms are chronic diarrhea, abdominal cramps, bloating, and fatigue. Also, she says, the park signs about Giardia are probably posted because theRead MoreEssay about Alcoholism and Drug Addiction17765 Words   |  72 PagesFORWARDING CERTIFICATE Ms Bandana Grover has been permitted to write a project on â€Å"Alcoholism and Drug Addiction† for B.A. LL.B. (Hons) Internal Evaluation of Amity Law School, Sector – 125, Noida, AUUP. Date: 10th October 2011 Ms. Mokshdha Bhushan Lecturer Amity Law School AUUP Noida - 201301 Introduction Alcoholism and Drug Addiction may be conceptualized as crime without victim that is, addict himself is the victim who becomes a prey of its misuse. ThisRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. 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Team Communication Skills - 1014 Words

Team Communication Skills In addition to good individual communication skills, the team itself needs to form communication skills. Cohen (2008) looks in detail of the communication skills the team should establish for good overall communication. In addition, the article also goes to explain how commutation plays a role in conflict resolution, and what group rules the team should create when conflict occurs. As a team, creating a protocol for conflict management is important. This includes how the team should communicate and behave during a conflict as well (Cohen, 2008). There are several important elements to include in this structured process. The first element is allowing members to speak up and to express feelings with respect. Secondly, is to intervene early to decrease the severity of the problem. Moreover, when the conflict occurs it is critical to establish a goal as to what all team members want and for it to be understood. Finally, the team should always remember to empathi ze with the other members, demonstrate appreciation, and try to understand another’s perception (Cohen, 2008). It is important, however, to remember that reducing conflict can be simple if the team follows an appreciative process. Bushe (1998) goes on in explaining this concept, and explains by using this process it helps the team amplify what they can do, and focus on the positives within a situation. Skills parts of the appreciative process are positivity and being positive to the team,Show MoreRelatedLeadership Skills, High Communications Skills And Good Team Working Ability1282 Words   |  6 Pages In my opinion, managers should have Leadership skills, high communications skills and good team working ability. These certain qualities are most crucial for the managers to run their profit making organization successfully. 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Workplace essential skills enable people at work to do the tasks required by their occupation, give them the basics to learn all other skills (job and life) and assist them to manage and adapt to the changing workplace environment. TheyRead MoreSelf-Development as a Part of Professional and Academic Skills Support Module1146 Words   |  5 Pagesexperiences as a part of professional and Academic skills support (PASS) module. It helped to apply theoretical knowledge for the outdoor activities in the Buxton Residential Trip starting from the team formations and end up with the poster presentation and other group activities which are essential for building up of self-confidence and behavioral intelligence. My essay aims on Leadership, Teamwork and self-management and effective communication skills and concludes focussing on key areas with appropriate

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Changes on Film and photography over the Decades - 729 Words

Film and Photography Film and Photography has changed dramatically over the decades, from the camera obscura, pinhole, lomography and now we are at an age where almost everybody in the world has the means to make films and photographs in their pockets. Since the means of making filmic and photographic art are still so readily available, the rarity and uniqueness of the media has been greatly diluted. This makes it harder for artists to establish themselves, on the other hand this also means ; because there is more competition that art pieces are becoming more and more exceptional. I will be looking at how this affects modern art and whether or not I believe this art form has attributed to it. Although it is argued the use of photographs are not as diligent as traditional art forms such as painting or sculpting, it has opened up a whole new breed of art; which documents and â€Å"captures, instantaneous fleeting moments†. Photography gives a take on perspective that cannot be captured by hand and because of digitalised nature of the media, allows the photographer or film-maker an almost unlimited amount of versatility through editing. Francis Firth called the use of photography â€Å"an attribute† I very much agree with him. The use of photography has been a prominently useful tool throughout history, many artists used photographs to capture a scene or portrait to be draw or painted later thus extending their time-scale. I have used photography and film in my own work. I findShow MoreRelated How Digital Processes Change Photography Essay1665 Words   |  7 PagesHow Digital Processes Change Photography New technology is an ever present, always advancing force in today’s world. For this reason it is no surprise that in the last decade we have begin to see the rise of digital imaging in our lives. 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We have different styles of media, different ways to view media, and so many different options when it comes to creating media. A recent technology that has started to gain traction is 360-degree photography. This new technology allows people to view more than traditional 2-D perspective. With this new way of being able to capture a scene comes many affordances and constraints. Being able to

Should College Athletes Be Paid - 886 Words

student athletes, should be designed in a way that promotes academic progress as well as graduation. Whether you are on a college campus or listening to a sports talk radio show, the question of should college athletes be paid seems to have been discussed forever. One of the major arguments for paying student athletes is that the colleges use the athletes to generate revenue for the college. â€Å"There are also those that argue that athletes should be paid for the hours that they often put in their respective sports and classrooms† (Jung, 2013). There have been a lot that has been said in regards to the fact that athletes are making colleges better because they attract other potential students and the athletes should be rewarded for that impact to the college (Smith, 2011). Some may argue that all a student athlete has to do is be patient and their huge professional salary will be there for them in a few years. These same individuals feel it is wrong that the student athletes are not paid for all the work they do. (McCormick, 2006). If the athletes deem themselves as being good enough and do not want to play in the collegiate schools, they should instead jump to a professional league. â€Å"Professional leagues such as the National Basketball Association, National Hockey League, National Football League and Major League Baseball often have some type of an age restriction for the athletes that want to work for the league† (Smith, 2011). These restrictions in most instances do notShow MoreRelatedShould College Athletes Be Paid?1289 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout the years college sports have been about the love of the game, filled with adrenaline moments. However, the following question still remains: Should college athletes get paid to play sports in college? Seemingly, this debate has been endless, yet the questions have gone unanswered. The National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) plays a vital role in this debate. The NCAA is a billion dollar industry, but yet sees that the athlete should get paid for their hard work and dedicationRead MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid?1334 Words   |  6 Pagesrising to the surface is â€Å"Should college athletes be paid?†. This has become a burning question. The NCAA is a multibillion-dollar industry, that makes millions, if not billions, in revenue. Yet it’s still maintains the non-profit status meaning that the industry is not set on making a profit and none of the revenue that is made is distributed to its members, managers, or officers. While most players who play in college sports are under a scholarship, that pays for the college tuition, books, and housingRead MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid?1578 Words   |  7 PagesAshay Mehta Nou Per 8 Should College Athletes Be Paid? One of the hottest debates in the sports industry is if college athletes should be paid. If you want to pay these athletes, how would the college determine the dollar amount that should be paid? Should the basketball team make more than the football team? Should the the soccer team be paid as well? Cheerleading? Chess team? Should everyone on the team get a salary? What if your college is good at football and your basketball team is awfulRead MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid?1398 Words   |  6 Pagesbelieve that college athletes at the highest performing schools are better treated than others. Although they do not get paid, they do receive some benefits for being athletes that other students would not get. One advantage for playing a sport is access to scholarships that some schools reserve for their athletes. Depending on the school and the athlete’s performance, money towards tuition is often given. Only some schools are willing to grant â€Å"full-ride† scholar ships for certain athletes. AccordingRead MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid?1364 Words   |  6 PagesHave you paid attention to all of the news that has been surfacing about collegiate sports lately? It is a big topic now days in the world of sports on weather college athletes should be getting paid to play sports. College athletics have gained great popularity of the past few decades, and have brought schools lots of revenue. A lot of college athletes think they should be getting paid for their services they do for their school. College sports like basketball and football generate over six billionRead MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid?1130 Words   |  5 PagesWhat college athlete would not want to be paid to play the sport that he or she loves? The real question is, though, should college athletes be paid for their roles in a college’s athletics? They are many points to each side of this recent controversial topic, which is why this has been made into such a hot deba te in the past couple of years. As of right now, these athletes are not getting paid, but many of them truly believe that they should. Others believe that they already are being paid throughRead MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid?986 Words   |  4 PagesPaying the College Athlete The college athlete has steadily grown in popularity in the United States over the span of the past decades. Monetarily speaking, this increased publicity has been extremely beneficial for National Athletic Association (NCAA) and all the colleges involved in athletics which has sparked the dispute of whether or not the athlete should be paid for their hard work and dedication on the field and to their school or if the athletic scholarship is more than enough. College athletesRead MoreCollege Athletes Should Not Be Paid1558 Words   |  7 Pagesstudent-athletes participate in a variety of different sports, and currently they do not receive paychecks for their performances. College athletics have attained an extensive popularity increase among Americans over the past few decades. This has resulted into increased revenues for the National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA] and the participating colleges, which has fuelled the debate of whether or not college athletes should colle ct an income. College athletes should not be paid to playRead MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid? Essay1739 Words   |  7 PagesShould College Athletes Be Paid to Play? The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) governs all laws regarding college sports under the Division I, Division II, and Division III conferences. Its sole purpose is to protect student-athletes on and off the field, and regulate all games and scholarships affiliated with the students. Right now there are 1,121 colleges and universities under the NCAA (NCAA, n.d.), leaving a chunk of schools out—those who do not participate in Division I, II,Read MoreCollege Athletes Should Be Paid1254 Words   |  6 PagesSome college athletic departments are as wealthy as professional sports teams. The NCAA has an average annual revenue of $10.6 billion dollars. College athletes should be paid because of the amount of revenue that they bring to their college. Each individual college should pay its athletes based on how much revenue they bring to the college in which they attend. The colleges that win their Division title, their Conference title, or the National championship, give bonuses to the Head coach of that

The Effective Leader Andrew Carnegie free essay sample

Leadership effectiveness report – Andrew Carnegie In this report, I will introduce an effective leader Andrew Carnegie, a famous entrepreneur who led the steel industry to expanse and develop in whole America in the late 19th century. This Scottish-American man achieved in being the richest industrialist in early 20th century by starting his first job as a bobbin factory worker, after years of effort, he built his Carnegie Steel Company, which later on merged with Federal Steel Company and several small companies to form the U. service writing in military S. Steel. In U. S. , together with the â€Å"Petroleum Emperor† Rockefeller, â€Å"Auto Emperor† Ford and other famous tycoons, the â€Å"Steel Magnate† Andrew Carnegie maintained the place of world’s largest steel company and almost monopolized the whole industry in America for decades. After making huge success in his business, he chose to donate almost his all fortune to philanthropy and turned interest to education. Undoubtedly Andrew Carnegie became the hero of American and led them to achieve enterprise goals According to John Gardner’s book On Leadership, nine roles and tasks of leadership was listed, which include envisioning goals, affirming values, motivating, managing, achieving workable unity, explaining, serving as a symbol representing the group and renewing. In this section, the reasons for why Andrew Carnegie is an effective leader will be provided. Envisioning goals As an effective leader, he or she must have the ability to create a vision, identify goals and provide solutions to problems. In 1863 the civil war fueled the iron industry and after the war was over, Andrew Carnegie resigned from the Pennsylvania Railway because he saw the potential in this field during the war. The reason why Carnegie turned to devote his life in to steel industry and then earned his fortune was that he not only focused on the present but also looked into the future and envisioned goals. Serving as a symbol Perhaps the most obvious and significant role to be an effective leader is serving as a symbol. On one hand, it is certain that Carnegie was the greatest leader and symbol of the steel industry. For what he had been contributed to the development and expansion, Carnegie was the Steel Emperor in American history undoubtedly. On the other hand, no one can deny he was also a symbol for serving as generous philanthropist among the rich. After Carnegie sold all his steel holdings to J. P. Morgan, he turned to hammer at building libraries, funding to schools. Everything he did was the reflection of his leadership and his steel industry. Renewing There is no doubt that Andrew owned the ability of renewing. Before civil war, Andrew Carnegie quitted his job and invested all his assets to build his first company Keystone Bridge Works in 1862. However, since from July 4, 1863, the both sides of the civil war began using the warships, Carnegie realized how important the steel is. Once he travelled to Europe, Andrew was inspired by Henry Bessemer’s breakthrough technology of making steel. Since then he devoted his entire mind to the iron business after coming back to America. Through this transform, it believes that Andrew Carnegie was challenging the status quos and encouraging the responsiveness to change. Motivating In 1898, Andrew Carnegie wrote his book â€Å"The Gospel of Wealth†, in which he advanced the notion that the rich should use their resources and wealth to help and enrich society. Two year later, he accepted J. P. Morgan’s offer which he would buy all his steel holdings for the price of $480 million dollars. Since then he began to devote his energies to philanthropy especially on education. The major philanthropic contribution includes funding for the establishment of more than 2,800 libraries, Carnegie Hero Fund Commission (1904), Carnegie Endowment for the Advancement of Teaching (1905) and so on. According to John Gardner’s leadership roles of motivating, Carnegie motives the people from two ways: the young are motivated to achieve their life goals and the rich are motivated to contribute the wealth to society. In order to know more about the leadership style and behavior of Andrew Carnegie, using behavior approach to analysis is a good choice since behavioral basis for researching leadership shows that some certain leadership behaviors are more effective than others in various situations. The next I will use two different leadership models to discuss. At first, according to the Likert’s systems model, there are four systems developed from factors of concern for people and concern for production, which respectively are autocratic, benevolent, participative and democratic. And Carnegie belonged to the participative leader. It must be pointed out that Carnegie owned most his success to that he had employed a group of talents that were skillful and also knew how to manage. He concerned on people and trusted them, but also kept control of decisions. Besides, the Leadership Grid developed by Blake and Mouton is also a useful model to analysis Carnegie’s leadership behavior and style. During the way Carnegie led steel industry to expanse and develop, his style on the grid is nearly (9, 9), a kind of â€Å"team management† style. Nowadays, people often quoted one of his famous saying: if I ruin all my plant equipment, materials, as long as keep my whole class people, I will still be a steel emperor a few years later. As it is known to us all, Andrew Carnegie is the Steel Magnate of 20th century and also a great and respected philanthropist. It is undeniably that his fortune, achievement and philanthropy contributing vastly to the American society . Through his recipe to successful leadership roles that include fostering the process of renewal, the eloquent explaining ability, serving as symbol and motivating spirit, which fit the theories of John Gardner’s leadership roles and tasks, Andrew Carnegie was fully worthy of an effective leader.